Jungian vs. Lumina Spark Assumptions

The left hand column shows the Jungian assumptions that have been used for several decades. The contrasting Big5 and Lumina Spark assertions are outlined in the right hand columns.

Jungian Assumption Lumina Spark / Big5 Latest empirical research

These four factors are 'bimodal', with an individual having to be at one end of the polarity i.e. an individual must be either an introvert or an extravert (and cannot be both).

These five factors are not ‘bimodal’ but instead form a ‘normal’ distribution i.e. an individual could possess both introverted and extraverted qualities.

Each of the four factors has two polarities. This yields a 4 x 4 matrix of 16 personality types.

Within each of the five factors are sub-factors that Lumina terms 'qualities'. Individuals can score anywhere on a continuum and the concept of 'type' as described by Jung is simply not empirically justifiable.

Of the four functions - sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling - the one that is 'dominant' is not determined by the highest score of the four, but instead by a calculation based on the additional judging and perceiving factor.

To determine the relative intensity of the five factors does not require a calculation based on the judging and perceiving scores.

Instead, a simpler approach suggests the degree of preference an individual has for a factor is determined by the strength of their score in it.